All OPatch versions after are Online Patch aware.

The syntax to install an Online Patch is:

opatch apply online -connectString <SID>:<USERNAME>:<PASSWORD>:<NODE>


$ opatch apply online -connectString db11202:sys:oracle -invPtrLoc /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/oraInst.loc
Invoking OPatch

Oracle Interim Patch Installer version
Copyright (c) 2010, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Oracle Home : /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
Central Inventory : /u01/app/oraInventory
from : /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/oraInst.loc
OPatch version :
OUI version :
OUI location : /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/oui
Log file location : /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/cfgtoollogs/opatch/opatch2011-01-27_16-14-21PM.log

Patch history file: /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/cfgtoollogs/opatch/opatch_history.txt

The patch should be applied/rolled back in '-all_nodes' mode only.
Converting the RAC mode to '-all_nodes' mode.
ApplySession applying interim patch '10188727' to OH '/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1'

Running prerequisite checks…
Provide your email address to be informed of security issues, install and
initiate Oracle Configuration Manager. Easier for you if you use your My
Oracle Support Email address/User Name.
Visit for details.
Email address/User Name: 

You have not provided an email address for notification of security issues.
Do you wish to remain uninformed of security issues ([Y]es, [N]o) [N]: y

OPatch detected non-cluster Oracle Home from the inventory and will patch the local system only.

Backing up files and inventory (not for auto-rollback) for the Oracle Home
Backing up files affected by the patch '10188727' for restore. This might take a while…
Backing up files affected by the patch '10188727' for rollback. This might take a while…

Patching component oracle.rdbms,…
The patch will be installed on active database instances.
Installing and enabling the online patch 'bug10188727.pch', on database 'db11202'.

ApplySession adding interim patch '10188727' to inventory

Verifying the update…
Inventory check OK: Patch ID 10188727 is registered in Oracle Home inventory with proper meta-data.
Files check OK: Files from Patch ID 10188727 are present in Oracle Home.

OPatch succeeded.

For RAC you can list all of the instances:

opatch apply online -connectString <SID>:<USERNAME>:<PASSWORD>:<NODE1>,<SID2>:<USERNAME>:<PASSWORD>:<NODE2>,…

The USERNAME and PASSWORD are those of a user that has SYSDBA privileges. 
The USERNAME and PASSWORD can be left blank if the OS user applying the patch has the SYSDBA privilege. 
To apply a patch only to local in the RAC environment, it is necessary to use '-local'.




参考:RDBMS Online Patching Aka Hot Patching (文档 ID 761111.1)